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11/11/2017

LTE-Advanced Technology: Carrier Aggregation

In this article I would like to explain the concept or the technology carrier aggregation in connection with LTE. Carrier aggregation, in short CA , is an important component of the 3GPP release 10, and thus of LTE-Advanced ( LTE-A ), which was specified in 3GPP Release 10. LTE-A consists of several components, including CA, for example 8 × 8 MIMO, and LTE UE categories 6, 7 and 8.

 

In addition to a higher speed (up to about 1.2 gigabits per second downstream in LTE cat. 8 UE) compared to normal LTE, improved data rates on the cell edge are also a plus for LTE-A. However, in spite of various optimizations, one will need more frequency spectrum in the future in order to be able to further increase the data rates and meet the increase in global traffic - the peak data rates of LTE-A can only be achieved if up to 100 MHz are bundled. And this is where Carrier Aggregation is used. Problem: Frequency spectrum is a scarce resource  

 

The topic affects almost all mobile network operators in the world: they do not have enough coherent frequency spectrum to easily offer the high data rates of LTE-A. In Germany, for example, there is only 20 MHz bandwidth available in the frequency range around 800 MHz - paired in 4 blocks, ie 10 MHz for the downlink and 10 MHz for the uplink. In the configuration currently in use (2 × 2 MIMO, LTE UE Cat. 3), a maximum of 75 MBit/s can be reached in the downstream, although not much more than 60 MBit/s is possible.  

 

Fortunately, the providers in Germany have enough spectrum to be able to connect at least LTE cat. 4 with up to 150 MBit/s without much effort, at least in the frequency ranges around 1800 MHz and 2600 MHz. It is only more difficult if higher speeds are desired. In other countries, such as South Korea, for example, there is already this problem, where carrier aggregation is used. Before I get to the details of this technology, first a short video from the company Qualcomm, which explains the functionality in a quite appealing way: [embed]https://youtu.be/SCbN1DgF60g[/embed]    

 

Carrier aggregation: bundling of different frequency  

 

Blocks with CA, the network operators are able to bundle different frequency blocks into a large block for the first time. After 3GPP release 10, the upper limit is at 100 MHz, although a later expansion is of course not excluded. In the medium term, however, it is likely to be a bundling of 40 to 60 MHz.   There are three different modes for channel bundling, whereby only the following carriers can be combined: 1.4 / 3/5/10/15/20 Megahertz. How and in what way the combination takes place is left to the network operator, but maximum of 5 carriers can be bundled:

 

 

 

  • Intra band, contiguous:  this is the simplest CA method. Two or more frequency blocks are clustered, contiguous and within a frequency range (Intra band). So, for example, 2x 10 MHz in band 3 (frequency range around 1800 MHz). The terminal does not need any great hardware changes because it perceives the aggregated channel as a large channel and therefore requires only one transceiver (transceiver).

 

  • Intra band, non-contiguous: in this method, two or more carriers are bundled, these frequency blocks being not adjacent but lying in the same frequency range. On the end of the terminal, two or more transceivers are now required to use the aggregated band.

   

  • Inter-band, non-contiguous: this CA method is likely to be the most widely used in the future as it is most likely to be true for network operators. In this case, frequency blocks from different frequency ranges can be bundled in order to create the largest possible frequency block. A possible scenario would be, for example, the combination of spectrum from band 20 (around 800 MHz) with spectrum from band 3 (1800 MHz). As you can imagine, several transceivers and further optimizations are necessary in the terminal, which can have a noticeable effect on the energy consumption.

 

Different ranges of individual carriers and downwards compatibility  

 

Especially in the case of carrier aggregation using inter-band, non-contiguous, it is inevitable that there will be differences in the size of the individual cells. Thus, with a terminal with CA support close to an LTE transmitter (eNodeB), very high speeds will be achieved as the terminal can use a lot of bundled spectrum. A few kilometers from the transmitter is possibly only LTE800 receivable and CA brings no more advantage.

 

 

As can be seen in the above, there is always a Primary Serving Cell, or PCC, a "main cell", which ensures the supply. The other cells (SCC) serve merely as a support for user data, in other words to increase the bandwidth. Depending on the terminal, the PCC can be different, depending on various factors, for example the respective energy consumption in the terminal. This, of course, requires a lot of optimization both in the network planning and in the manufacturers of the modems for mobile devices.  

 

Of course, CA and thus also LTE-A is down-compatible with "conventional" LTE. Old and currently available terminals are therefore still usable in the future. Nevertheless, if you want to use the higher bandwidths or carrier aggregation, you obviously need a new terminal. Here, again, the LTE UE category has to be considered, CA alone is not enough to achieve speeds in the gigabit range.  

09/11/2017

Huawei E5180 4G LTE Cube Review

The Huawei E5180 is a 4G router with a nice look. Working with a 4G sim card, the Huawei E5180 could provide a fast network for home office, and it can easily replace an ADSL box when you have a deplorable throughput. The Huawei E5180 is an unlocked 4G router that uses SIM card in European and African countries. Like all these 4G routers, simply put the SIM card in, start it, connect to the web interface with the information displayed under the router and start a connection in minutes.

 

Huawei 4G WiFi Cube E5180 Package details

 

Comparing with the 3G router Such As Huawei B683 , it is More Powerful purpose Comparing with the other 4G routers, it May not be the best. Based on the functions, Huawei E5180 works perfectly if you do not have an internet to use. The only important point is that it is necessary to have a good relationship. We had tested it on many devices at different locations. You may find the best one to use the Huawei E5180 router.

 

Huawei 4G WiFi Cube E5180 BOX

 

Technical Specifications

 

Dimensions: 70mm wide, 110mm height, 70mm depth Weight: 250 grams Supported LTE category 4 Supported frequencies FDD 800/900/1800/2100/2600 MHz and TDD 2600MHz 1 RJ45 female (fast Ethernet), 1 RJ11 female, WIFI N 300Mbps 2 CRC-9 ports to connect an external antenna available on the left side SIM Card Type: micro sim

 

Some more info

 

You have two LED indicators on the front. The top one lets you know the quality of the received signal.

  • blue: signal is strong
  • yellow: Signal is weak
  • red: No signal

 

Huawei 4G WiFi Cube E5180 SIM Card Slot

 

To use the router quickly, just insert the micro sim card into the router, plug it in and wait a few moments. Using the RJ45 cable, connect the router to your PC. You can also connect wifi to your router by looking underneath it! A label includes the SSID (name of the wifi network of the router) and WIFI KEY (the password to access this network). In a web browser, type the address http://192.168.1.1/ You will then access the interface to configure the router. The username and password are both admin.

 

huawei WiFi Cube E5180

 

External Antenna

 

If you want to have the best possible reception especially if you are very far from the cell tower, you can connect an external antenna to this E5180 router. The ideal antenna is obviously an outdoor LTE antenna, which has two connectors and when installing the antenna, make sure it pointing to the 4G cell tower, the cable entering your roof and going down into the room. We had one tested outdoor external LTE antenna, which can work well with the Huawei E5180 to get much better signal and surfing speed.  

 

HUAWEI E5180 LTE CPE

 

Conclusion

 

The Huawei E5180 4G router does the job perfectly. Capturing much better 4G than a mobile phone, it allows you to replace a box at the ASDL. The download speed on LTE reaches 150Mbps and upload speed to 50mbps. And the price of Huawei E5180 is not expensive since it's available for long time in the market. Even though there are many 4G routers in the market, the functions of Huawei E5180 are enough for most cases.

05/11/2017

ZTE MF905 WiFi Hotspot in Car Review

The ZTE VFi MF905 was first presented to public since last year, but it seems very few network provider had introduced this product to their data plan. Today, we get the ZTE MF905 Mobile WiFi Hotspot and it’s unbranded.

 

ZTE MF905 VFI

 

However, unlike its competitor Huawei E8377 CarFi, the MF905 MiFi has two parts. More specifically, the ZTE MF905 is only a small WiFi hotspot like Huawei E5331 but much smaller. If you want to use the ZTE MF905 in a car, you must get the cigarette charger base and plug the ZTE MF905 into the base. Then they would work together to provide wireless network in a car. There are 4 interfaces for power supply at the bottom of ZTE MF905 body. The interfaces would be suitable for the base.

 

ZTE MF905 VFI

 

If you don't use the ZTE MF905 in a car, you can pull out the MF905 and it can get power supply through a USB cable which is included in the package. Of course, you can plug a SIM card into the MF905 and with power supply, you can get wireless network from this MF905.

 

ZTE MF905 VFI

 

On the front of ZTE MF905, there are 4 indicators for power, WiFi, signal strength and message. The power button is just in the middle of the 4 indicators. Below them is the ZTE logo. The front cover can be removed and after removed, we can see the SIM card slot. And the Reset hole is around the power button. But there is no slot for Micro SD card.

 

ZTE MF905 VFI

 

At the bottom of the ZTE MF905, there is a label showing the information:  

Model number: ZTE MF905

Power input: DC 5V-1.5A

CMIIT ID: 2016CP6404

IMEI: 862252030032XXX

WLAN SSID: ZTE_9E4A07

WLAN Key: 71889989

IP Address: 192.168.0.1

Password: admin

Manufacturer: ZTE

 

ZTE MF905 VFI

 

ZTE MF905 could support the LTE Category 4 with peak download speed to 150mbps and upload speed to 50Mbps. Up to 8 wireless users could connect to MF905 and surf simultaneously. ZTE MF905 could support the 802.11 b/g/n/ac standard and it could be managed by APP through mobile phones.

 

ZTE MF905 VFI

 

The cigarette charger base can work well with MF905. Besides the power supply, there is also one USB port to charge other electric devices such as smartphones, Pads. On the cigarette body, there is also a label showing the information:

 

ZTE MF905 VFI

MF905 Especially for Car Input: 12 – 2A

Output: 5V --- 2.5A

USB Output: 5V --- 1A  

 

ZTE MF905 VFI

 

The two parts are packed in respective boxes. If you will use the ZTE MF905 in a car, don’t forget to get the cigarette base to let them work together. Otherwise, you need connect USB cable with the MF905 to work as a common mobile hotspot.

 

ZTE MF905 VFI

 

Conclusion

 

The ZTE MF905 is cool in black and the function is very practical with high LTE download speed support for up to 8 users. But the division of the two parts may not be a good design because the upper part of MF905 doesn’t have an insert battery, so if you want it work independently; you must keep it connected with the USB power adapter through the USB cable. It can’t work like a mobile pocket WiFi hotspot unless you let it work with a power bank. On this point, the Huawei E8377 may be more professional for a car.